What Are Benefits Of Fish Oil In Our Body?

Theres something special about that stuff called fish oil. Did you know that modern humanity might have actually split off from its earlier ancestors because its members had started consuming it as part of their new seafood diet? Many of our ancestors in the East African Rift Valley began to start eating fish, and intelligence flourished as a result.
Believe it or not, fish oil is truly a critical part of what makes you smart. Your brain is actually made of about 60% DHA, one of two key Omega-3 essential fatty acids found in fish. It is now considered to be likely that fats and oils from fish, which are still a major part of our current brains, were the catalyst that made us smart.

There are many benefits of fish oil, but along the lines of your brain, one important help of this oil is the treatment of dementia and depression. While dementia is not preventable or curable, there is evidence that it can be improved by consuming this oil. Dementia can also be controlled and have symptoms minimized by practicing healthy habits and removing bad habits like smoking, inflammation, high blood pressure, and other chronic conditions. The most notable gain can be found from a healthy diet and regular exercise.

When it comes to depression, taking fish oil can actually improve your mood and stabilize it. In other words, you are bound to feel less depressed and have less of an emotional rollercoaster when you are taking it. Depression causes symptoms like sadness, fatigue, difficulty thinking and concentrating, lessened appetite, insomnia, thoughts of suicide, and hopelessness. Having a higher level of EPA in the blood has been linked to better regulation of symptoms in the elderly.

Other research has demonstrated that most chronic diseases are affected by an imbalance in eicosanoids. Eicosanoids affect the heart, the mind, and even your emotions. Further benefits of fish oil include a reduction in inflammation, which is a significant cause of most chronic lifestyle diseases like heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes. Fish oil also helps with the heart by improving cholesterol and keeping blood thin, while also helping to unclog arteries!

While most of these conditions are partly out of your controlsome factors like genetics play a roleyou can tip the scale in your favor by taking reasonable precautions and working hard to live as healthy a lifestyle as possible. Whatever you cant do, you can expect that this oil will help make up the difference, because it has nutrients that help minimize your risk of all sorts of unwanted diseases and conditions that might pop up later on.

Now that you know the benefits of fish oil, it would also be a good idea to limit your intake to only pharmaceutical-grade. As beneficial as the Omega-3 essential fatty acids are for your body, the toxins and contaminants so prevalent in modern fish are not so beneficial. Pharmaceutical-grade oil is a concentrated form of essential fatty acids minus all of that bad stuff.

Oxygen Therapy

Many biochemical reactions in the body depend on oxygen utilization. Supply of oxygen to the tissues depends on many factors like ventilation, diffusion across alveolar-capillary membrane, hemoglobin, cardiac output, and tissue perfusion. Oxygen therapy is required for respiratory failure in many conditions like severe asthma, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, and myocardial infarction, etc. Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a therapeutic modality. Oxygen therapy benefits the patient by increasing the supply of oxygen to the lungs and thereby increasing the availability of oxygen to the body tissues. Appropriate levels of oxygen are vital to support cell respiration. High blood and tissue levels of oxygen can be helpful or damaging, depending on circumstances. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the use of high levels of oxygen for treatment of specific diseases. High levels of oxygen given to infant’s cause’s blindness by promoting overgrowth of new blood vessels in the eye obstructing sight. This is Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Administration of high levels of oxygen in patients with severe emphysema and high blood carbon dioxide reduces respiratory drive, which can precipitate respiratory failure and death.

Respiratory system

The respiratory system is concerned with the delivery of an adequate amount of oxygen to and elimination of a corresponding amount of carbon dioxide from the cells of the body and maintenance of normal acid-base balance in the body. Adequate supply of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide from various tissues of the body depends on the optimal functioning of various parts of the respiratory system like chest wall and respiratory muscles, airways and lungs, CNS (including medullary respiratory centres), spinal cord and endocrine system. A disorder in any portion of these systems can lead to respiratory failure.

Respiratory failure

During respiratory failure, there is an inability to keep the arterial blood gases at normal level. Respiratory failure may be acute or chronic. Acute respiratory failure develops suddenly or slowly if lungs are already diseased; while chronic respiratory failure develops slowly due to underlying lung disease. Respiratory failure may occur even if lungs are normal as in diseases of nervous system, chest wall, or upper airways. Inadequate gas exchange is associated with hypoxaemia with or without hypercarbia.

(Type-1 respiratory failure or lung failure), while inadequate ventilation leads to hypoxaemia with hypercarbia (Type-2 or ventilatory failure). Type- 1 respiratory failure occurs when there is disease of peripheral gas exchanging parts of body and type-2 in COPD, bronchial asthma, neuromuscular disease, and chest wall disorders.

Management

The aims of therapy in respiratory failure are to achieve and maintain adequate gas exchange and reversal of the precipitating process that led to the failure. In type-1 respiratory failure, high concentration of oxygen is given to correct hypoxaemia. At the outset it should be determined whether the hypoxaemia can be relieved by oxygen therapy alone or it needs oxygen and ventilatory intervention. The decision is made on the presence or absence of hypercapnia and of lung disease. In type-2 respiratory failure with previous normal lungs, there is inadequate alveolar ventilation and in these patients ventilatory assistance is needed. In patients with previous lung disease as in acute exacerbation of COPD, controlled oxygen therapy is needed. Mechanical ventilation should be avoided in patients with COPD as the weaning from the ventilator is very difficult.

Hypoxia and hypoxaemia

Hypoxia is lack of oxygen at the tissue level while hypoxaemia implies a low arterial oxygen tension below the normal expected value (85-100 mmHg).

Acute severe bronchial asthma

Patients with acute severe asthma or status asthmaticus have severe air ways obstruction and inflammation. They are generally hypoxaemic. Hypoxaemia is corrected by giving oxygen via nasal cannula or face mask at a flow rate of 4-6 L/min to achieve FiO2 of 35-40%. Flow rate may be adjusted to maintain PaO2 of about 80 mmHg or more. The risk of hypercarbia and CO2 narcosis is more in COPD rather than acute severe asthma and in such cases assisted ventilation is required. Administration of sedatives and tranquilizers must be avoided. Sedatives may precipitate the CO2 retention not only in patients with COPD but also in asthma.

Severe pneumonia

In severe acute viral or bacterial pneumonias, there may be hypoxaemia and respiratory failure. Oxygen is given at a flow rate of 4-6 L/min to achieve PaO2 above 60 mmHg. Bronchial hygiene and treatment with antibiotics and other drugs is meanwhile continued.

Interstitial lung disease

Patients may have respiratory failure due to fulminant onset or because of intercurrent infection. The lungs are stiff and compliance is low. As these patients need oxygen for prolonged periods, one should wean oxygen to FiO2 of about 40% as early as possible. Some patients may become dysphonic even after mild exertion and such cases benefit from oxygen administration before and after physical activity.

Administration

Various devices are used for administration of oxygen.

1.
The nasal cannula (NC) is a thin tube with two small nozzles that protrude into the patients nostrils. It can only provide oxygen at low flow rates, 2-6 litres per minute (LPM), delivering a concentration of 28-44%.
2.
The simple face mask (SFM) is a basic mask used for non-life-threatening conditions but which may progress in time, such as chest pain, dizziness, and minor hemorrhages. It is often set to deliver oxygen between 6-10 LPM.
3.
The non-rebreather mask (NRB) is utilized for patients who require high-flow oxygen, but do not require breathing assistance. It has an attached reservoir bag where oxygen fills in between breaths, and a valve that largely prevents the inhalation of room or exhaled air.
4.
The bag-valve-mask (BVM) is used for patients in critical condition who are either breathing extremely inefficiently, or not breathing at all. An oxygen reservoir bag is attached to a central cylindrical bag, attached to a valved mask that administers almost 100% concentration oxygen at 8-15 lpm.
5.
The anaesthetic machine is a machine used during anesthesia that allows a variable amount of oxygen to be delivered, along with other gases including air, nitrous oxide and inhalational anaesthetics.
6.
Aviator type and other specialized tight fitting oxygen masks are used in hyperbaric oxygen chambers and to provide oxygen to carbon monoxide victims.
Dangers of oxygen therapy

There are three types of risks associated with oxygen use.
1. Physical risks

Oxygen being combustible, fire hazard and tank explosion is always there. This is more with high concentration of oxygen, use of pressure chambers, and in smokers. Catheters and masks can cause injury to the nose and mouth. Dry and non-humidified gas can cause dryness and crusting.

2. Functional risks

Patients who have lost sensitivity to CO2 and are upon the hypoxic drive are in danger of ventilatory depression as seen in patients of COPD. Hypoventilation can lead to hypercapnia and CO2 narcosis although the risk is small with low flow oxygen therapy.

3. Cytotoxic damage

COPD patients on long term oxygen therapy, on autopsy, show proliferative and fibrotic changes in their lungs. In acute conditions, most of the structural damage occurs from high FiO2 as the oxygen can lead to the release of various reactive species which attack the DNA, lipids, and SH-containing proteins.

What conditions or diseases can be helped with oxygen therapy?

Cancer. Oxygen therapies have great potential in the treatment of cancer. As early as 1931 Dr. Otto Warburg won the Nobel Prize in his work of what causes cells to become cancerous. “Cancer has only one prime cause. The prime cause of cancer is the replacement of normal oxygen respiration of body cells by an anaerobic (lacking in oxygen) cell respiration.” It is well known that cancer cells thrive under conditions of low oxygen and high acidity.

Heart conditions. The heart goes into spasm largely due to lack of oxygen. The better the breathing is the more oxygen exists and less the heart has to work.

Bacterial diseases. Ozone is able to destroy many kinds of bacteria. It produces peroxides within the body, which destroys the cell membrane of bacteria but does not affect healthy cells. Scientific experiments have shown that E. coli is completely destroyed after one minute of being exposed to an ozone solution. Similar experiments have shown reduction in staphylococcus, streptococci, and mycobacterium tuberculosis. Because many strains of bacteria have recently been shown to be resistant to antibiotics, oxygen therapy may offer an effective alternative.

Viral diseases. Antibiotics are not effective in viral infections but. Oxygen therapies have proved successful. Some of the diseases caused by viruses are flu, mumps, measles, polio, herpes, AIDS, hepatitis. Ozone can destroy the protein coat of the virus cell wall and once inside can disrupt its DNA. Studies have shown ozone to inactivate 97 to 100 percent of the HIV virus.

Parasitic infections. Studies of the effective use of ozone and hydrogen peroxide destroying parasites have been very successful. Malaria parasites were killed with even slight concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in animal and laboratory studies. In a study of Giardia lamblia, a parasite that can infest the intestinal tract and cause severe symptoms of diarrhea, nausea, and cramps, patients were given either ozonated water or ozonated oil. The symptom reduction was very a successful 97.5% for each group.

Leave Your Apprehensions Behind With Lasik Eye Surgery Center

It has become easier to get treated for any disease easily these days, all thanks to the advent of information technology along with the advancement of medical science. However, getting operated for some treatment leaves people with many apprehensions, especially when the vital organs like eyes are in question. Sometimes, even looking for lasik eye surgery center becomes tough, but not any more, as you can flip through the pages of the directories or even get information through search engines.

The doctors at the lasik eye surgery center will offer you treatment for eye diseases and conditions like myopia – a condition in which things that are at quite a distance, become blurred or indistinct, but things that are approachable can be viewed easily and clearly. The other condition, hyperopia is characterized by clear vision when viewing objects in the distance but blurrs vision up close. Lasik surgery is also effective for astigmatism, which is a distortion of the image as reflected on the retina. This is caused by a misshapen cornea or lens of the eye. In fact, the combination of these conditions is common and can be cured easily at any good and reliable lasik eye surgery center.

Well informed doctors from the center will provide you with the information on the procedure of lasik surgery. In fact, if anyone who wishes to undergo the lasik surgery wears contact lenses, then it is advisable to stop wearing them before the initial check-up. The center will ask to you not to wear contact lenses for at least two weeks before surgery, as they are capable of altering the shape of the cornea. The doctors from the center can choose a treatment from a variety of procedures that suit the eye condition. However, wavefront mapping method is generally used prior to the surgery. Lasik treatment is not advisable for pregnant or nursing women or people with various conditions like corneal scratching or infection, keratonconus, herpes simplex or herpes zoster, glaucoma or high blood pressure, inflammation of the eye or eyelid and crusting of the eyelashes. In fact, a consultant from lasik eye surgery center will further inform you on the conditions that cannot be treated or are less likely to be successful.

In fact, the consultants from lasik eye surgery center will also advise you to restrain from using the cosmetics, at least a day before the surgery. This is to prevent debris from entering the eyes that can cause incorrect incisions and lead to infections. A reliable lasik eye surgery center also imparts information on the recovery period and risks involved. The vision may take three to eight weeks to stabilize. If you suffered from any visual problems before your surgery other than distance viewing conditions, it is important to remember that the surgery is not expected to correct any of those conditions that were pre-existing. While lasik eye surgery is quite safe, there is always the slight risk of complication. Hence, it is important to consider these risks before going for or deciding on the procedure. And that is what the lasik eye surgery center does, by giving you factual points involved in the lasik surgery.

The Over-erect Penis – Priapism And Blood Diseases

Although men often make jokes about having constant erections, the truth is that an “over-erect” penis – a member that refuses to deflate and creates a painful condition known as priapism – is no laughing matter. Good penis care is one way to avoid priapism, but some men with certain blood disorders may need to take special steps to avoid this condition and should know how to respond if it strikes them.

What is priapism?

Priapism is an erectile disorder; however, whereas most erectile disorders deal with a lack of an erection or firmness in an erection, priapism is quite the opposite: a persistent, uncontrollable erection generally unrelated to sexual arousal, often accompanied by pain which can be quite intense at times. Generally, an erection is considered to cross over into priapism if it lasts for four hours or longer without deflating.

Named after Priapus, the Greek god of fertility (usually depicted with an enormous erect member), priapism can be caused by several factors, including an unfortunate reaction to drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction. Certain blood disorders, especially sickle cell disease and leukemia, also have an association with this problem.

Why is it associated with these disorders?

Most men don’t spend a lot of time wondering about the mechanics related to erections; they just know that they enjoy getting one and enjoy even more relieving themselves of one. But the process by which a member becomes erect gives clues as to why certain blood diseases might bring about this state.

As is well known, a man gets an erection as a response to a stimulus: a gentle stroke of the penis, the sight of an attractive person, the smell of pheromones, etc. When the body receives the proper stimulus, the blood vessels in the penis area relax and expand; this allows a greater influx of blood, which rushes in and fills up the spongy tissue in the penis, causing an erection. When an appropriate amount of blood has entered, the connection is blocked so that the blood remains in the penis until after ejaculation (or other loss of stimulation), at which point the blood is allowed to flow back out of the penis and the member returns to its “at rest” flaccid state.

In sickle cell or leukemia, situations can arise in which the blood is impeded from flowing out of the erect penis, causing the priapic state.

Sickle cell

Priapism is estimated to occur in between 29% and 42% of men with sickle cell disease. It is thought that there are two reasons for this high prevalence:

(1) the fact that sickle cell has a tendency to interfere with the production of nitric oxide, which is a crucial factor in opening up blood vessels and allowing blood to flow freely, and

(2) the tendency of the sickle-shaped blood cells to create blockages that also impede blood flow.

Leukemia

Leukemia-related priapism is far less common, occurring in an estimated 5% of men with a leukemic disorder. Blood clots and thickened blood are responsible for the inability of the blood to flow freely out of the erect member.

Consequences

In addition to extreme pain, a severe case of priapism can have long-ranging consequences, including erectile dysfunction, impotence and physical disfigurement of the penis.

An over-erect penis should be treated seriously, and individuals with sickle cell or leukemia should consult with their doctors to determine what steps to take to prevent priapism and how and when to seek help in the event of an occurrence.

Keeping an eye on priapism goes hand-in-hand with keeping an eye on overall penis health. Regularly using a first rate penis vitamin cream (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil) is an especially good idea. The best creams will contain L-arginine, an ingredient that is helpful in producing the nitric oxide that maintains proper penis blood flow. In addition, the superior cream will include acetyl L-carnitine, a neuroprotective ingredient that is an aid in maintaining penis sensitivity. These ingredients, along with a range of vitamins, play a big role in keeping a penis healthy and lively.

What Are Benefits Of Fish Oil In Our Body?

Theres something special about that stuff called fish oil. Did you know that modern humanity might have actually split off from its earlier ancestors because its members had started consuming it as part of their new seafood diet? Many of our ancestors in the East African Rift Valley began to start eating fish, and intelligence flourished as a result.
Believe it or not, fish oil is truly a critical part of what makes you smart. Your brain is actually made of about 60% DHA, one of two key Omega-3 essential fatty acids found in fish. It is now considered to be likely that fats and oils from fish, which are still a major part of our current brains, were the catalyst that made us smart.

There are many benefits of fish oil, but along the lines of your brain, one important help of this oil is the treatment of dementia and depression. While dementia is not preventable or curable, there is evidence that it can be improved by consuming this oil. Dementia can also be controlled and have symptoms minimized by practicing healthy habits and removing bad habits like smoking, inflammation, high blood pressure, and other chronic conditions. The most notable gain can be found from a healthy diet and regular exercise.

When it comes to depression, taking fish oil can actually improve your mood and stabilize it. In other words, you are bound to feel less depressed and have less of an emotional rollercoaster when you are taking it. Depression causes symptoms like sadness, fatigue, difficulty thinking and concentrating, lessened appetite, insomnia, thoughts of suicide, and hopelessness. Having a higher level of EPA in the blood has been linked to better regulation of symptoms in the elderly.

Other research has demonstrated that most chronic diseases are affected by an imbalance in eicosanoids. Eicosanoids affect the heart, the mind, and even your emotions. Further benefits of fish oil include a reduction in inflammation, which is a significant cause of most chronic lifestyle diseases like heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes. Fish oil also helps with the heart by improving cholesterol and keeping blood thin, while also helping to unclog arteries!

While most of these conditions are partly out of your controlsome factors like genetics play a roleyou can tip the scale in your favor by taking reasonable precautions and working hard to live as healthy a lifestyle as possible. Whatever you cant do, you can expect that this oil will help make up the difference, because it has nutrients that help minimize your risk of all sorts of unwanted diseases and conditions that might pop up later on.

Now that you know the benefits of fish oil, it would also be a good idea to limit your intake to only pharmaceutical-grade. As beneficial as the Omega-3 essential fatty acids are for your body, the toxins and contaminants so prevalent in modern fish are not so beneficial. Pharmaceutical-grade oil is a concentrated form of essential fatty acids minus all of that bad stuff.

What Are Benefits Of Fish Oil In Our Body?

Theres something special about that stuff called fish oil. Did you know that modern humanity might have actually split off from its earlier ancestors because its members had started consuming it as part of their new seafood diet? Many of our ancestors in the East African Rift Valley began to start eating fish, and intelligence flourished as a result.
Believe it or not, fish oil is truly a critical part of what makes you smart. Your brain is actually made of about 60% DHA, one of two key Omega-3 essential fatty acids found in fish. It is now considered to be likely that fats and oils from fish, which are still a major part of our current brains, were the catalyst that made us smart.

There are many benefits of fish oil, but along the lines of your brain, one important help of this oil is the treatment of dementia and depression. While dementia is not preventable or curable, there is evidence that it can be improved by consuming this oil. Dementia can also be controlled and have symptoms minimized by practicing healthy habits and removing bad habits like smoking, inflammation, high blood pressure, and other chronic conditions. The most notable gain can be found from a healthy diet and regular exercise.

When it comes to depression, taking fish oil can actually improve your mood and stabilize it. In other words, you are bound to feel less depressed and have less of an emotional rollercoaster when you are taking it. Depression causes symptoms like sadness, fatigue, difficulty thinking and concentrating, lessened appetite, insomnia, thoughts of suicide, and hopelessness. Having a higher level of EPA in the blood has been linked to better regulation of symptoms in the elderly.

Other research has demonstrated that most chronic diseases are affected by an imbalance in eicosanoids. Eicosanoids affect the heart, the mind, and even your emotions. Further benefits of fish oil include a reduction in inflammation, which is a significant cause of most chronic lifestyle diseases like heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes. Fish oil also helps with the heart by improving cholesterol and keeping blood thin, while also helping to unclog arteries!

While most of these conditions are partly out of your controlsome factors like genetics play a roleyou can tip the scale in your favor by taking reasonable precautions and working hard to live as healthy a lifestyle as possible. Whatever you cant do, you can expect that this oil will help make up the difference, because it has nutrients that help minimize your risk of all sorts of unwanted diseases and conditions that might pop up later on.

Now that you know the benefits of fish oil, it would also be a good idea to limit your intake to only pharmaceutical-grade. As beneficial as the Omega-3 essential fatty acids are for your body, the toxins and contaminants so prevalent in modern fish are not so beneficial. Pharmaceutical-grade oil is a concentrated form of essential fatty acids minus all of that bad stuff.

Complications Of Ignoring A Female Orgasm Enhancement Program

Women everywhere need to know just how female orgasm enhancement can improve your health and assist you and your body in quite a few techniques. A incredibly prevalent medical problem that females have to deal with is some kind of sexual dysfunction. Keep reading this article to learn the best way to enhance your health and well-being by way of female orgasm enhancements.
Environmental Health Causes of Female Sexual Dysfunction
When you need to seriously figure out how female orgasm enhancement can aid you, you might have to figure out what kinds of sexual dysfunction that women can experience. Doctors and scientists have confirmed that neurological disorders and diseases are closely related to lots of sexual disorders which effect men and women alike. Diabetes and other such medical conditions, specially ones that can diminish liver and kidney function, can all contribute to these types of concerns. If you might be experiencing excellent levels of depression, anxiety, sexual trauma and stress, you may possibly have a bit of a sexual dysfunction that prevents you from being able to orgasm. Luckily, you’ll be able to absolutely use female orgasm enhancement to get over that sort of sexual dysfunction and get better.
Female Orgasm Enhancement – Its Quite a few Advantages
Enhancing the female orgasm, as stated earlier, can be the key to leading a fuller and healthier life. There are lots of techniques in which hormones like this can assist you. For example, these hormones can work in a parallel manner to some opiate based receptors that are located inside the brains of women. This gives you a feeling of euphoria and relaxation that will perform very a few psychological actions into the fray. These things occur when an orgasm is attain by a woman:
– As a climax occurs and these endorphins are released, you will experience a marked drop in blood pressure.
* Like morphine, endorphins are a pain suppressant and reliever which means that when they are released, they naturally support with numerous persistent medical conditions which trigger chronic pain in women.
– Should you are having trouble fighting off diseases as a result of a diminished immune system, it has been verified that regular orgasms can strengthen the immune system. These things result in a naturally optimized health for the woman.
A great deal of women have to deal with the anxiety and tension of a hard day’s work, as well as whatever is happening to them otherwise. Those who use female orgasm enhancements and experience a regular release of endorphins typically come across that not only do they feel far better all around, but their anxiety levels are also drastically reduced at the exact same time.
In closing, female orgasm enhancement is much more than just merely feeling intense degrees of pleasure. It is also a method to improve the health in an enjoyable way. So, should you tend to suffer from various medical conditions, psychological issues including anxiety, anxiety or depression, or when you just wish to feel much better, take some time out to investigate female orgasm enhancements and how to make it work for you.

Oxygen Therapy

Many biochemical reactions in the body depend on oxygen utilization. Supply of oxygen to the tissues depends on many factors like ventilation, diffusion across alveolar-capillary membrane, hemoglobin, cardiac output, and tissue perfusion. Oxygen therapy is required for respiratory failure in many conditions like severe asthma, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, and myocardial infarction, etc. Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a therapeutic modality. Oxygen therapy benefits the patient by increasing the supply of oxygen to the lungs and thereby increasing the availability of oxygen to the body tissues. Appropriate levels of oxygen are vital to support cell respiration. High blood and tissue levels of oxygen can be helpful or damaging, depending on circumstances. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the use of high levels of oxygen for treatment of specific diseases. High levels of oxygen given to infant’s cause’s blindness by promoting overgrowth of new blood vessels in the eye obstructing sight. This is Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Administration of high levels of oxygen in patients with severe emphysema and high blood carbon dioxide reduces respiratory drive, which can precipitate respiratory failure and death.

Respiratory system

The respiratory system is concerned with the delivery of an adequate amount of oxygen to and elimination of a corresponding amount of carbon dioxide from the cells of the body and maintenance of normal acid-base balance in the body. Adequate supply of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide from various tissues of the body depends on the optimal functioning of various parts of the respiratory system like chest wall and respiratory muscles, airways and lungs, CNS (including medullary respiratory centres), spinal cord and endocrine system. A disorder in any portion of these systems can lead to respiratory failure.

Respiratory failure

During respiratory failure, there is an inability to keep the arterial blood gases at normal level. Respiratory failure may be acute or chronic. Acute respiratory failure develops suddenly or slowly if lungs are already diseased; while chronic respiratory failure develops slowly due to underlying lung disease. Respiratory failure may occur even if lungs are normal as in diseases of nervous system, chest wall, or upper airways. Inadequate gas exchange is associated with hypoxaemia with or without hypercarbia.

(Type-1 respiratory failure or lung failure), while inadequate ventilation leads to hypoxaemia with hypercarbia (Type-2 or ventilatory failure). Type- 1 respiratory failure occurs when there is disease of peripheral gas exchanging parts of body and type-2 in COPD, bronchial asthma, neuromuscular disease, and chest wall disorders.

Management

The aims of therapy in respiratory failure are to achieve and maintain adequate gas exchange and reversal of the precipitating process that led to the failure. In type-1 respiratory failure, high concentration of oxygen is given to correct hypoxaemia. At the outset it should be determined whether the hypoxaemia can be relieved by oxygen therapy alone or it needs oxygen and ventilatory intervention. The decision is made on the presence or absence of hypercapnia and of lung disease. In type-2 respiratory failure with previous normal lungs, there is inadequate alveolar ventilation and in these patients ventilatory assistance is needed. In patients with previous lung disease as in acute exacerbation of COPD, controlled oxygen therapy is needed. Mechanical ventilation should be avoided in patients with COPD as the weaning from the ventilator is very difficult.

Hypoxia and hypoxaemia

Hypoxia is lack of oxygen at the tissue level while hypoxaemia implies a low arterial oxygen tension below the normal expected value (85-100 mmHg).

Acute severe bronchial asthma

Patients with acute severe asthma or status asthmaticus have severe air ways obstruction and inflammation. They are generally hypoxaemic. Hypoxaemia is corrected by giving oxygen via nasal cannula or face mask at a flow rate of 4-6 L/min to achieve FiO2 of 35-40%. Flow rate may be adjusted to maintain PaO2 of about 80 mmHg or more. The risk of hypercarbia and CO2 narcosis is more in COPD rather than acute severe asthma and in such cases assisted ventilation is required. Administration of sedatives and tranquilizers must be avoided. Sedatives may precipitate the CO2 retention not only in patients with COPD but also in asthma.

Severe pneumonia

In severe acute viral or bacterial pneumonias, there may be hypoxaemia and respiratory failure. Oxygen is given at a flow rate of 4-6 L/min to achieve PaO2 above 60 mmHg. Bronchial hygiene and treatment with antibiotics and other drugs is meanwhile continued.

Interstitial lung disease

Patients may have respiratory failure due to fulminant onset or because of intercurrent infection. The lungs are stiff and compliance is low. As these patients need oxygen for prolonged periods, one should wean oxygen to FiO2 of about 40% as early as possible. Some patients may become dysphonic even after mild exertion and such cases benefit from oxygen administration before and after physical activity.

Administration

Various devices are used for administration of oxygen.

1.
The nasal cannula (NC) is a thin tube with two small nozzles that protrude into the patients nostrils. It can only provide oxygen at low flow rates, 2-6 litres per minute (LPM), delivering a concentration of 28-44%.
2.
The simple face mask (SFM) is a basic mask used for non-life-threatening conditions but which may progress in time, such as chest pain, dizziness, and minor hemorrhages. It is often set to deliver oxygen between 6-10 LPM.
3.
The non-rebreather mask (NRB) is utilized for patients who require high-flow oxygen, but do not require breathing assistance. It has an attached reservoir bag where oxygen fills in between breaths, and a valve that largely prevents the inhalation of room or exhaled air.
4.
The bag-valve-mask (BVM) is used for patients in critical condition who are either breathing extremely inefficiently, or not breathing at all. An oxygen reservoir bag is attached to a central cylindrical bag, attached to a valved mask that administers almost 100% concentration oxygen at 8-15 lpm.
5.
The anaesthetic machine is a machine used during anesthesia that allows a variable amount of oxygen to be delivered, along with other gases including air, nitrous oxide and inhalational anaesthetics.
6.
Aviator type and other specialized tight fitting oxygen masks are used in hyperbaric oxygen chambers and to provide oxygen to carbon monoxide victims.
Dangers of oxygen therapy

There are three types of risks associated with oxygen use.
1. Physical risks

Oxygen being combustible, fire hazard and tank explosion is always there. This is more with high concentration of oxygen, use of pressure chambers, and in smokers. Catheters and masks can cause injury to the nose and mouth. Dry and non-humidified gas can cause dryness and crusting.

2. Functional risks

Patients who have lost sensitivity to CO2 and are upon the hypoxic drive are in danger of ventilatory depression as seen in patients of COPD. Hypoventilation can lead to hypercapnia and CO2 narcosis although the risk is small with low flow oxygen therapy.

3. Cytotoxic damage

COPD patients on long term oxygen therapy, on autopsy, show proliferative and fibrotic changes in their lungs. In acute conditions, most of the structural damage occurs from high FiO2 as the oxygen can lead to the release of various reactive species which attack the DNA, lipids, and SH-containing proteins.

What conditions or diseases can be helped with oxygen therapy?

Cancer. Oxygen therapies have great potential in the treatment of cancer. As early as 1931 Dr. Otto Warburg won the Nobel Prize in his work of what causes cells to become cancerous. “Cancer has only one prime cause. The prime cause of cancer is the replacement of normal oxygen respiration of body cells by an anaerobic (lacking in oxygen) cell respiration.” It is well known that cancer cells thrive under conditions of low oxygen and high acidity.

Heart conditions. The heart goes into spasm largely due to lack of oxygen. The better the breathing is the more oxygen exists and less the heart has to work.

Bacterial diseases. Ozone is able to destroy many kinds of bacteria. It produces peroxides within the body, which destroys the cell membrane of bacteria but does not affect healthy cells. Scientific experiments have shown that E. coli is completely destroyed after one minute of being exposed to an ozone solution. Similar experiments have shown reduction in staphylococcus, streptococci, and mycobacterium tuberculosis. Because many strains of bacteria have recently been shown to be resistant to antibiotics, oxygen therapy may offer an effective alternative.

Viral diseases. Antibiotics are not effective in viral infections but. Oxygen therapies have proved successful. Some of the diseases caused by viruses are flu, mumps, measles, polio, herpes, AIDS, hepatitis. Ozone can destroy the protein coat of the virus cell wall and once inside can disrupt its DNA. Studies have shown ozone to inactivate 97 to 100 percent of the HIV virus.

Parasitic infections. Studies of the effective use of ozone and hydrogen peroxide destroying parasites have been very successful. Malaria parasites were killed with even slight concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in animal and laboratory studies. In a study of Giardia lamblia, a parasite that can infest the intestinal tract and cause severe symptoms of diarrhea, nausea, and cramps, patients were given either ozonated water or ozonated oil. The symptom reduction was very a successful 97.5% for each group.